Gå til innhold

Ulike reguleringsforslag for produksjon og salg av cannabis

2012 28 desember
fra → Samfunn
av Anita Nyholt

Ulike reguleringsforslag for produksjon og salg av cannabis. Blant annet har regjeringen i Uruguay foreslått at staten skal produsere og selge marihuana, og to stater i USA har ved folkeavstemning vedtatt å lovliggjøre og regulere salget av cannabis som for alkohol. De amerikanske reguleringsplanene blir utformet i løpet av 2013.

Nederland har hatt sitt system med «lovlige» utsalgssteder siden 70-tallet, hvor staten ikke er involvert i produksjon, men har innført ulike restriksjoner som aldersgrense for bruk.

Da regjeringen la til rette for statlig produksjon og salg med registreringsordning som en apotek-modell, ble det ikke så godt mottatt som forventet. Av de estimerte 10 000 til 15 000 man trodde ville be om marihuana på resept benyttet bare 1 300 seg av muligheten til å bruke apotekmodellen i 2010. Det har selvsagt også sammenheng med at kundene ikke bare ønsker å få kjøpt marihuana, men også hasj.

Brendan Hughes, Senior scientific analyst EMCDDA:
«Nederland har siden 70-tallet regulert cannabismarkedet med aldersgrense, kvalitetskontroll og «lovlige» utsalgssteder.» [..] «Cannabis er ikke et helt harmløst rusmiddel, så det trengs noe kontroll.»

Når EMCDDA viser til Nederland er det fordi de er det landet i Europa som har gått lengst i å regulere cannabismarkedet. Det betyr ikke at de har den perfekte løsningen, de «lovlige» varene er feks ikke lovlig produsert/importert.

Nederland har ønsket en internasjonal debatt om endring av FN-konvensjonen i mange år.

Washington og Colorado har vedtatt (etter folkeavstemning) at cannabis skal selges som alkohol. Bruk og besittelse av cannabis (med mengdebegrensning) er tillatt for alle voksne over 21 år. Reguleringstiltakene for produksjon og salg trer i kraft i løpet av 2013.

De to statene trosser de føderale lovene, fordi produksjon, kjøp og salg fortsatt er forbudt under statlig lovgivning. Som nasjon svarer man overfor det internasjonale samfunn, lover og avtaler, mens som delstat eller kommune svarer man overfor det nasjonale.

Dana Larsen (Sensible BC) har benyttet seg av den muligheten i provinsen British Columbia i Canada. Der krever de at bruk og besittelse avkriminaliseres og at det nedsettes en komite som skal utrede et regulert cannabismarked, som alkohol og tobakk. Det å fjerne forbudet mot bruk og besittelse vil frigi ressurser til politiet, som da kan konsentrere seg om organisert kriminalitet og ikke brukere.

The Sensible Policing Act has two main parts.
1 – Decriminalize cannabis possession
2 – Work towards legalization

The purpose of the Act is to reform and strengthen the oversight of policing in British Columbia and to ensure that an adequate and effective level of policing and law enforcement is maintained throughout BC.

The Act does so by prioritizing use of police resources toward substantive and serious criminal offences by re-directing the use of those limited resources in regards to simple possession of cannabis; by initiating a provincial commission to study how the government of British Columbia can properly tax and regulate cannabis once it is removed from the federal Controlled Drugs and Substances Act; and by calling on the Government of Canada to allow the Province to regulate cannabis using lessons learned from alcohol and tobacco.

Lovendring og reguleringplaner for Urugay

Regjeringen i Uruguay har også foreslått at staten skal produsere og selge cannabis. Bruk har vært tillat i Uruguay siden 1974, men ikke besittelse.

TITLE I – THE PURPOSES OF THIS ACT CHAPTER ONE
Article 1. – Declare general interest actions to protect, promote and improve the public health of the population through a policy designed to minimize risk and reduce the harms of cannabis use, which promote adequate information, education and prevention on consequences and harmful effects related to consumption.

Article 2. – Notwithstanding the provisions of Decree-Law No. 14.294 of 31 October 1974 and its amending acts, the State, directly or through the institutions which grant legal mandate and take over regulating the activities of import, export, planting, cultivation, harvesting, production, purchase in any capacity, storage, Marketing and distribution of cannabis or its derivatives, as it provisions of this law and the terms and conditions set about regulation.

TITLE II – OF CANNABIS CHAPTER I. – Of the changes to drug rules Article 3. – Will be substituted Article 3 of Decree-Law No. 14.294 of 31 October 1974, as amended by Article 1 of Law No. 17.016, of October 22, 1998, by the following: «ARTICLE 3. – Are prohibited planting, cultivation, harvesting and marketing of any plant that can be drawn narcotics and other substances that determine physical or psychological dependence, with the following exceptions:

A) When performing with unique scientific research purposes or for the production of therapeutic medical use. The plantations or in this case, must be approved in advance by the Ministry of Public Health and will be under their direct control. In the case of cannabis, plantations or crops must be previously authorized by the National Cannabis (INCA), and remain under its direct control, subject to the controllers that legislation gives the corresponding bodies in the field of their powers.

B) The planting, cultivation and harvesting as well as industrialization and psychoactive cannabis marketing other purposes, provided that done in the context of current legislation and prior authorization INCA, being under their direct control. Psychoactive cannabis means to buds with or without fruit of the female cannabis plant, except the seeds and Stem separate sheets, including their oils, extracts, prepared potential pharmaceutical use, syrups and the like, the content of tetrahydro cannabinol (THC) natural equals or exceeds 1% percent volume.

C) The planting, cultivation and harvesting as well as industrialization and marketing of non-psychoactive cannabis use (hemp). The plantations or in this case, must be approved in advance by the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries, and remain under the direct control. The term non-psychoactive cannabis use (hemp) to plants or plant parts of the genera Cannabis, the leaves and tips flowery, with no more than 1% THC, including derivatives such plants and parts of plants. The seeds of non-psychoactive hemp varieties to use may not exceed 0.5% THC.

D) The planting, cultivation and harvesting of plants domestic psychoactive effect cannabis intended for personal consumption or shared in the home. Notwithstanding this means for the personal consumption or shared at home, planting, cultivation and domestic harvest up to six cannabis plants greenhouse psychoactive and product collection previous planting up to 480 grams.

E) The planting, cultivation and harvesting cannabis plants greenhouse psychoactive made ​​by membership clubs, which will be controlled by INCA. These clubs must be approved by the Executive Power in accordance with current legislation, and in the form and regulatory conditions to be established that is handed down. Membership clubs may have a maximum of fifteen members; may be planted a maximum of ninety psychoactive plants use obtained as a result of the collection of the plantation, a maximum of 7.200 grams per year.

Any unauthorized planting must be destroyed with the intervention of Judge competent. The Government shall regulate the provisions of subsections preceding mechanisms including access to seeds, which remain intended to psychoactive cannabis plantations for personal use in the under current legislation, be considered in all cases as lawful activity. This regulation is without prejudice to the controllers that Current legislation provides for any planting or cultivation is performed in country, in what might become applicable. Also, the regulation establish safety standards and conditions of use crop licenses for the purposes specified in the preceding paragraphs. The resulting marijuana harvest and cultivation of plantations referred in subsections B, D and E of this Article can not be pressed.

Article 4. – Will be substituted Article 30 of Decree-Law No. 14.294 of 31 October 1974, as amended by Article 1 of Law No. 17.016, of October 22, 1998, by the following: «ARTICLE 30. – Whoever, without lawful authority, anyway produjere raw materials or substances, as appropriate, capable of producing psychic or physical dependence, contained in the lists referred to in Article 1, chemical precursors and other chemicals contained in Tables 1 and 2 of this law, as well as those determined by the Executive under power contained in Article 15 of this law, shall be punished twenty (20) months in prison to 10 (ten) years imprisonment. You are exempt from liability who produces marijuana by planting, growing and harvesting cannabis plants in psychoactive effect terms of the provisions of Article 3 of this law. The destination to which referred to in subparagraph d) of Article 3 shall be assessed, if necessary, by Judge competently and in accordance with the rules of sound criticism, if that is exceed the quantities referenced there.

Article 5. – Will be substituted Article 31 of Decree-Law No. 14.294 of 31 October 1974, as amended by Article 1 of Law No. 17.016, of October 22, 1998, by the following: «ARTICLE 31. – Who, without lawful authority, imports, exports, introdujere in transit, distributes, transports, has in his possession not for consumption, regardless depositary, keeps them in stock, possesses, offers for sale or negotiates for However, some of the raw materials, substances, precursors chemicals and other chemicals mentioned in the previous article and according to the provisions thereof, shall be punished with the same penalty provided in that article. You are exempt from liability which transports, has in his possession, regardless depositary, keeps them in stock or owns a quantity for consumption staff, which will be assessed by the judge according to the rules of sound critical. Notwithstanding the foregoing, it is understood as quantity for personal consumption up to 40 (forty) grams of marijuana. Nor will reached by the provisions of the first paragraph of this Article shall in its home has in his possession, regardless of depositary, keeps them in stock or owns the harvest up to six cannabis plants psychoactive effect obtained according to the provisions of section D) of Article 3 of this Law, or in the case of the harvest for the members of a club membership as the provided by paragraph E) of Article 3 of this Act and the regulations respective.

Article 6. – The INCA shall record and clubs autocultivadores cannabis membership psychoactive effect, where those record the plants grown under the provisions of this law, in the manner established by the respective regulation. The record crop, under current legislation, will be essential to fall within the provisions of this Act. Percent Compliments eighty days of the start-up of that record, which does not will cost to users and will become the sole purpose of ensuring the traceability and control of crops, the only admissible plantations records to be made. Information regarding the identity of the holders of registration acts sensitive data should remain in accordance with the provisions of Article 18 of Law No. 18.331, of August 11, 2008.

CHAPTER II. – From health of the population and users
Article 7. – The National Integrated Health System (NHIS) must have policies and relevant devices to promote health, prevention of problematic use of cannabis, as well as have the care devices suitable for counseling, guidance and treatment of problematic cannabis users that require it.

Article 8. – The National Public Education System SNEP, must have educational policy for the promotion of health, prevention of use cannabis problematic from the perspective of the development of skills for Life and in the context of risk management policies and reduced damage Problematic Cannabis Use.

Article 9. – Prohibits all forms of advertising, indirect advertising, promotion or sponsorship (sponsorship) of cannabis products and by any of the various media: print, radio, television, cinema, magazines, films in general, posters, billboards on public roads, brochures, banners, email, Internet technologies, as well as any other suitable means.

Article 10. – Shall apply to the psychotropic cannabis space protection measures established by Article 3 of Law No. 18,256, of March 6, 2008. TITLE III – THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CANNABIS (INCA).

Article 11. – Created the National Institute of Cannabis, INCA, as a person legal non-state public law.

Article 12. – The INCA priorities will be: A) To regulate the activities of planting, growing, harvesting, production, processing, storage, distribution and sale of cannabis, as part of the provisions of this law and legislation. B) Promote and propose actions to reduce risks and damages associated with problematic use of cannabis, according to the policies defined by National Drug Council and in coordination with the authorities national and departmental. D) Monitor compliance with the provisions of this law office.

Article 13. – Compete for National Drug policy setting regarding cannabis national objectives as set out in Article above, counting with the advice of the Institute. This will adjust its action at the national policy. The Institute will link and coordinate with the Executive through the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries.

CHAPTER II – ADMINISTRATION
Article 14. – The bodies of the Institute shall be the Board of Directors, Management Executive and the National Advisory Board.

Article 15. – The Board shall be the chief of the Institute and its members shall be persons of recognized moral and technical. It will consist of: – A representative of the National Drug Secretariat, who shall preside – A representative of the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries – A representative of the Ministry of Social Development A representative of Ministry of Public Health. The appointment of members of the Board include that of their corresponding alternates.

Article 16. – The term of office of the members of the Board shall be five years and may be reelected for one consecutive term. Retiring members shall remain in office until they assume the new members appointed.

Article 17. – The Board shall determine the schedule of sessions. Resolutions are passed by a majority. In case of a tie, the President shall have two votes.

Article 18. – There will be an Executive Director appointed by the Board majority Directors, with the approval of the President. The remuneration shall be fixed by the Board with the approval of the Executive and charged to the Institute resources. The Executive Director shall attend the meetings of the Board with voice but no vote.

Article 19. – The Executive Director will be hired for periods of three years renewable. To his dismissal or non-renewal of contract must have with most of the votes of the Board, including the President.

Article 20. – The National Advisory Board shall consist of a representative of each of the following Departments of State: Minister of Public Health, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Economy and Finance and Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining; a representative of the University of the Republic, a representative of Congress of Mayors, a representative of membership clubs and autocultivadores associations, a representative of licensees. Act in plenary with the members of the Board and the Executive Director. Representatives of membership clubs and associations autocultivadores, and licensees, shall be appointed by the Power These Executive proposal. The regulations under this Act and any amendments thereto may modify the integration of this Council, expanding its membership. The Council may be convened at the request of both the Board as to request of three members.

CHAPTER III – THE DUTIES AND AUTHORITY
Article 21. – Tasks of the Institute are: A) The control and supervision of the planting, cultivation, harvesting, production, storage, distribution, sale and delivery of cannabis pursuant to the provisions of this law and legislation, without prejudice to the powers granted to other public bodies and entities. B) Advise the Executive: • In the formulation and implementation of public policies aimed at regulating and control the distribution, marketing, sale, offering and cannabis use. • In the development of strategies aimed at delaying the age of first consumption, increased risk perception and abusive consumption to lower the problematic use. • In the coordination of technical cooperation offers made the country in this area. • The contribution of scientific evidence through research and evaluation of the strategy for targeting public policies cannabis.

Article 22. – The duties of the Institute: • Granting licenses to produce, process, collect, distribute and sell Industrial and psychoactive cannabis and its extensions, modifications, suspensions and deletions, as provided in this Act and the respective regulations. • Statements of self-cultivation Register psychoactive cannabis, under the laws in force to this Act and the respective regulations. • Authorize cannabis club membership as the legal provisions of this Act and the regulations respective. • Head straight for the public to request and receive the information necessary for the fulfillment of the tasks assigned. • Enter into agreements with public or private institutions for the purposes of performance of their tasks, especially those who already have competence in the subject assigned. • Monitor compliance with the provisions in force in their charge. • To issue administrative acts necessary for the fulfillment of their committed. • Determine and apply appropriate sanctions for violations of regulatory standards established by this Act and its regulations. • Enforce the sanctions imposed, for which purpose the testimony of their enforcement constitute final decisions. Are resolutions the firm consented expressly or impliedly by the offender and those deny the appeal under this Act.

Article 23. – The Board, in its capacity as the highest organ of administration of the Institute shall have the following powers: A ) Projecting the General Regulations of the Institute and submit it for approval the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries. B ) Approve the status of its employees within six months of its installation. The same will be governed, as provided by the rules of law private. C ) Appoint, transfer and dismiss staff. D ) Set the cost of licenses under the provisions of Article above. E ) Approve its budget and submit to the Executive for knowledge, together with the plan. F ) Approve the plans, programs and special projects. G ) Raising the annual report and financial statements of the Institute. H ) Managing resources and assets of the Institute. I) Acquire, encumber and dispose of all types of goods, in the case of property shall be settled by special majority of at least three members. J) Delegate the powers it deems appropriate by decision founded and most of its members. K ) In general, perform all civil and commercial acts dictate internal management and perform operations inherent material to its general powers of administration, in accordance with the roles and specialization of the Institute.

Article 24. – The Executive Director shall have the following powers: A ) Comply with and enforce the rules of the competition the Institute. B ) Run the plans, programs and resolutions adopted by the Board Directive. C ) Perform all tasks related to the administration and staff internal organization of the Institute. D ) Any other that the Board entrusted or delegated.

Article 25. – The National Advisory Board, as the organ of Consultation Institute will act: A ) Advise on the drafting of the General Regulations of the Institute. B ) Advise on the drafting of plans and programs in previous form approval. C ) Advising on all that the Board requested. D ) Sounding in any other matters relating to the duties of Institute, when appropriate.

CHAPTER IV – THE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION
Article 26. – Will constitute the Institute’s resources: A ) The revenue for licenses and permits pursuant to the provisions of this Act B ) An annual State contribution under General Revenue in the amount determined by the five-year budget. The Executive may modify this magnitude considering the evolution of income Institute. C ) Inheritances, legacies and donations accepted by the Institute. D ) Or property values ​​assigned to the Institute any title. E ) The proceeds of the fines and penalties that apply. F ) All other resource they receive by implementing legislation.

Article 27. – The Institute’s administrative control is exercised by the Power Executive through the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries. This controller will be exercised for reasons of legality, as opportunity or convenience. To this end, the Executive may make such observations make relevant, and propose the suspension of the acts observed and corrections or removals to consider the case.

Article 28. – The National Internal Audit shall exercise oversight of the financial management of the Institute and must refer to it the surrender of accounts and budget balance within ninety days of the end of each year. The regulation of this Law shall determine the form and date of the balances, closing them and their advertising.

Article 29. – Against decisions of the Board will be the resource replacement should be filed within twenty days counted from the day following the notification of the person concerned. Once brought the appeal, the Board shall have thirty days to instruct and resolve the issue. Administrative appeal is denied the applicant may file only for reasons of legality, application for annulment of the contested before the Court of Civil Appeals shift to the date on which the act was dictation. The filing of this complaint must be made ​​within the period of twenty days following the refusal expressed or, failing that, the moment be configured constructive denial. The demand for cancellation may only be brought by the holder of a right subjective or of a direct, personal and legitimate, raped or injured by the contested. The Court will ultimately fail.

Article 30. – When the resolution emanates from the Executive Director, jointly or alternatively with the motion for reconsideration, appeals may be lodged hierarchical to the Board. This motion for reconsideration shall be filed and resolved in a timely provided for in the preceding article, which will also apply as appropriate to the resolution on the appeal and the subsequent court comptroller.

Article 31. – The Institute is exempted from all kinds of taxes, except social security contributions. In matters not specifically provided by the this Act, its operating range will be the private sector, especially in their accounting, personnel status and contracts to hold.

Article 32. – The Institute’s assets are indefeasible.

CHAPTER V – THE VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES
Article 33. – The Board of the Institute will be responsible for the implementation sanctions for violations of existing rules on licensing, without prejudice to any criminal liability that may correspond. The procedure in these cases will be the subject of regulation.

Article 34. – The offenses referred to the previous article, depending on the gravity of the offense and the background of the offender, shall be punished by: A ) Warning. B ) Penalty from UR 20 (twenty indexed units) to UR 2,000 (two thousand indexed units). C ) Confiscation of goods or items used to commit the infringement. D ) Destruction of goods where appropriate. E ) Suspension of the offender in the appropriate register. F ) Temporary or permanent disqualification. G ) Closing partial or total, temporary or permanent establishments and Local licensees are themselves or others. The sanctions established above may be implemented as cumulative and based on the seriousness of the offense and the background of responsible.

Article 35. – Without prejudice to the exercise of sanctioning powers precedents, having examined the Board or the Director Executive in the exercise of the powers of control and supervision committed to Institute, the existence of criminal activity, made ​​the respective complaint before the competent judicial authority.

TITLE IV – ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF COMPLIANCE THIS LAW
Article 36. – Believe in the orbit of the Presidency of the Republic, a Unit Specializing in Evaluation and Monitoring of this Act which shall be and will consist of technical personnel specialized in the evaluation and policy monitoring. Independent and will issue annual reports which, without binding, must be taken into consideration by agencies and institutions responsible for the implementation of this law. Saying report shall be submitted to the General Assembly.

Denne siden blir ikke holdt oppdatert – se under for lenker til oppdaterte sider

Se også:
Verden: reguleringsforslag for produksjon og salg av cannabis
USA: delstater som regulerer cannabis for rekreasjonell bruk

EMCDDA sammenligning
  1. november 5, 2014

    Fædrelandsvennen 5. november 2014:
    – Det var en lettelse når pengene var betalt, både for sønnen min og meg og kona, sa den anonyme familiefaren i 50-årene til Fædrelandsvennen.

    Han har hatt kontakt med politiet i forbindelse med trusler mot sønnen etter at politiet beslagla 200 gram hasj hjemme hos familien. Sønnen ønsket ikke å anmelde truslene.

    – Politiet fortalt meg at det også finnes politifolk som har betalt barnas narkogjeld. Da ramlet jeg helt av stolen. Vi har et system der det er gangsterne som egentlig styrer. http://www.fvn.no/lokalt/Politifolk-har-betalt-sine-barns-narkogjeld-2703330.html

    Salg av cannabis er i dag et pyramidspill, hvor mange selger videre til venner. Cannabis skal selges i lovlige utsalgssteder med aldersgrense, ikke av ungdom som ser muligheten til å tjene raske penger, men ofte ender opp med gjeld som kan føre til vold når det skal inndrives. http://luhm.no/?p=3778

  2. november 5, 2014

    Oregon er den tredje delstaten i USA som har vedtatt å legalisere cannabis for rekreasjonelt bruk (54 mot 46 prosent).

    Alaska er den fjerde delstaten i USA som har vedtatt å legalisere cannabis for rekreasjonelt bruk (52 mot 48 prosent).

    I Washington DC stemte nesten 70 prosent for JA til Ballot Initiative 71: “Legalization of Possession of Minimal Amounts of Marijuana for Personal Use Act of 2014.” Bruk og besittelse til privat bruk er ikke lenger straffbart i hovedstaden. Det ble ikke stemt over salg, fordi distriktets lover gjør at salg av cannabis ikke kan settes opp til valg, men bystyret vurderer et lovforslag som vil skattelegge og regulere cannabis, lignende som for delstatene som har legalisert.

    https://www.facebook.com/luhm.no/posts/769048659834545

  3. november 4, 2014

    VG: «I dag kan salg av marihuana over disk bli legalisert i enda flere amerikanske delstater. For to år siden gikk innbyggerne i delstatene Washington og Colorado til urnene for å stemme over det samme spørsmålet. Flertallet mente ja, og salget av marihuana til rekreasjonsbruk eri full gang i begge statene. Tirsdag, i forbindelse med det amerikanske mellomvalget, er det Oregon, Alaska og det føderale området Washington D.C. sin tur. Washington D.C. skal imidlertid ikke stemme over salg, men hvorvidt det skal gjøres lovlig å dyrke opp til seks cannabisplanter, bruke og besitte opp til 56 gram marihuana.» http://www.vg.no/nyheter/utenriks/usa/her-kan-marihuana-bli-lovlig/a/23328362

    Diverse kommentarer jeg har lagt inn:
    «Washington D.C. skal imidlertid ikke stemme over salg». Washington D.C.s lover gjør at salg av cannabis ikke kan settes opp til valg (på stemmeseddelen) som i delstater, men bystyret vurderer, i tillegg til folkeavstemningen om Initiative 71, et lovforslag som vil skattelegge og regulere cannabis for rekreasjonelt bruk slik at det kan bli solgt i lovlige utsalgssteder. http://luhm.no/?p=1993

    Jeg bør også nevne at grunnen til at jeg skriver cannabis og ikke marihuana som VG, er fordi når amerikanerne snakker om marijuana så kan det enten bety marihuana eller cannabis, de bruker det om hverandre. Hasj kalles «marijuana concentrate»/hash». I de delstatene hvor «marijuana» er/blir legalisert så gjelder det både hasj og marihuana (cannabis). Tenkte jeg ville nevne det så man ikke feilaktig tror at lovliggjøringen kun gjelder marihuana.

    En annen interessant ting er at innehav av mer enn tillat mengde straffes ulikt for hasj og marihuana. I allefall i Colorado (jeg har ikke sjekket de andre delstatene).

    I forbindelse med legaliseringen i Colorado spurte jeg Mason Tvert, talsperson for Marijuana Policy Project, om hvorfor det er slik: “Why are the penalities (over one ounce) for hash and marihuana not the same when A64 defines marihuana as both?”

    Jeg fikk til svar: «There are separate statutes for marijuana and marijuana concentrates and they are still in place. Amendment 64 did not change any existing statutes for possession of more than one ounce of marijuana and marijuana concentrates.»

    Grunnen til at det er så streng straff for brudd på mengdebegrensning for hasj skyldes altså at det gamle lovverket fortsatt gjelder for over en ounce, fordi Amendment 64 legaliserte inntil en ounce, men det sa ingenting om hva som skulle skje med brudd på mengdebegrensning, og da bruker de det gamle lovverket. Hvorfor de hadde ulike straffesystemer for hasj og marihuana i utgangspunktet vet jeg ikke.

    Der hvor cannabis er lovliggjort er det strenge reguleringer og restriksjoner, og vi må anta at det vil bli enda strengere her. Når det gjelder det du skriver om avhengighet, så er det ikke en direkte sammenheng mellom det og stor produksjon/høyt salg (UNODC sier 1 av 9 får problematisk bruk, andre sier 1 av 10), på samme måte som for vinmonopolordningen – selv om de selger mye så er ikke alle kundene avhengig av alkohol.

    Når det gjelder karteller og mafia, så er også det på samme måte som for alkohol. Det ville ikke vært særlig fornuftig å la dem fortsette å ha monopol på alkoholproduksjon- og salg. Ved å lovliggjøre og regulere markedet for illegale rusmidler så mister de enorme inntekter (som i dag går inn i den illegale globale økonomien), som da heller ikke lenger vil kunne sette inn i annen kriminalitet.

    Fra dokumentaren «Mafiaen – en økonomisk stormakt»: «Desse kriminelle gruppene har aldri vore rikare eller mektigare. Dei har omsetning på nivå med multinasjonale konsern, til og med statar. Ein reknar med at dei fire italienske mafiagruppene har ei samla omsetning på mellom 130 og 180 milliardar euro i året, altså 8-10 % av Italias BNP. Vi veit på verdsbasis kva pengane kjem ifrå. Narkotikahandel gir mest: 300-500 milliardar dollar.»

    Aftenposten har i en serie reportasjer satt søkelyset på kobling mellom hvit og svart økonomi. Norske skattekroner sluses inn i prosjekter der underleverandører driver svart og svindler med moms, skatt og avgifter. Dette viser hvordan illegal økonomi fra feks salg av cannabis blir hvitvasket.

    Dagens Næringsliv har også laget en veldig interessant reportasje om det illegale cannabismarkedet, korrupsjon og hvitvasking. https://www.facebook.com/luhm.no/photos/pb.122971301108954.-2207520000.1415096796./693777694028309

    Aftenposten skriver at kun 13 prosent stiller seg positiv til å gjøre det lovlig å røyke cannabis – det er 527 733 personer. Med tanke på all propagandaen som er ført gjennom mange år er det et betydelig antall mennesker som allikevel ikke støtter forbudspolitikken, men ønsker å fjerne straffetrussel for bruk. Det ville vært enda mer interessant å vite hvor mange som støtter legalisering av cannabis. http://luhm.no/?p=4540

    I USA har de mulighet for å samle underskrifter for å kreve folkeavstemninger. Den muligheten har vi dessverre ikke i Norge. Desto flere som liker LUHMs side på facebook desto større vil signaleffekten til politikerne være. http://luhm.no/?page_id=176

    Det er ikke en god løsning at det skal være sykdommer og lidelser som gir rett til å kjøpe cannabis lovlig. Det er feil at folk skal måtte jakte på en diagnose og sykeliggjøre seg for å slippe å være kriminelle. Friske mennesker har ikke godt av å tenke på seg selv som syke. Det gir også feilregistreringer i helsestatistikken. Blir ordningen for streng vil dessuten dagens illegale marked opprettholdes. Derfor bør cannabis selges uten resept, lignende vinomopolordningen for alkohol.

    En ordning som gjør at alle forbrukere skal kjøpe cannabis som medisin vil med stor sannsynlighet føre til at de “syke” bruker mer cannabis (daglig/flere ganger om dagen) enn om det blir kjøpt og brukt som rusmiddel (av og til). De som mener at de har medisinsk utbytte av å bruke cannabis vil kunne kjøpe varen fra et utsalgssted ment for rekreasjonelt bruk. http://luhm.no/?p=4618

    https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152350658562461&set=a.10152152192497461.1073741836.531642460

  4. oktober 11, 2014

    Delstatene Colorado og Washington i USA har legalisert cannabis.
    4. november vil velgerne i Alaska, Oregon og Washington DC (hovedstaden) avgjøre om de skal lovliggjøre og regulere cannabis for rekreasjonelt bruk. http://luhm.no/?p=1993

    The New York Times har tidligere hatt en artikkelserie hvor de anbefaler at cannabis bør lovliggjøres og reguleres. I denne nye artikkelen anbefaler de velgerne å stemme ja i de delstatene hvor det er valg i neste måned. https://www.facebook.com/luhm.no/posts/755279454544799

    Willy Pedersen, NRK Aktuelt 18. august 2014:
    “Vi står i en situasjon hvor kanskje California kommer etter om et par år, 40 millioner innbyggere, og det er klart at det er et signal, uansett hva vi tenker om det så må vi ta dette alvorlig.

    I dag kan du som sagt få 21 års fengsel i Norge for å importere hasj til landet, og det er veldig vanskelig å forestille seg at vi kan opprettholde et sånt regime med en vare som da/nå 50 kanskje 60-70 millioner amerikanere kan få kjøpt over disk. Så uansett hva vi tenker om dette så må vi allefall forstå at dette er et tegn på at den narkotikapolitikken vi har holdt oss med i 50 år, den må på en eller annen måte mye mer grunnleggende diskuteres.” http://luhm.no/?p=4618

    De internasjonale FN-konvensjonene for narkotika er et globalt rammeverk, det er ikke bare cannabis som blir diskutert, men cannabis er det største markedet. Det at Uruguay og (foreløbig) to delstater i USA har legalisert cannabis, og forsøker å løse sine egne problemer er ikke en global løsning. De internasjonale konvensjonene, det globale rammeverket, må endres. http://luhm.no/?p=4432#comment-3510

    Se også:
    http://anitanyholt.no/samfunn/mexico

  5. oktober 11, 2014

    På seminaret på Bindern sa Garat, som har vært blant rådgiverne for myndighetene i Uruguay, at selv om Uruguay er et fredelig land i forhold til mange andre land i Latin-Amerika, så er volden i forbindelse med handel med ulovlige rusmidler voksende, og det er hovedgrunnen til at de vedtok å legalisere. De ønsker ikke å få tilstander som feks i Mexico, og ville forebygge dette ved å legalisere, ikke bare bruk, men alt fra produksjon til salg.

    – Vi skal stjele markedet fra narkolangerne og få ned kriminaliteten. Derfor legaliserer vi marihuana for privat bruk, sier president Jose Mujica, Uruguay. http://www.dagbladet.no/2014/10/10/nyheter/pluss/nyheter_pluss/uruguay/jose_mujica/35632738

    Se også:
    http://anitanyholt.no/samfunn/mexico/#comment-5791

    Fra UNODCs rapport, 2014: “Med tanke på størrelsene, utgjør Uruguay og delstatene Colorado og Washington en svært liten del av det totale cannabismarkedet. Eksperter anslår kartellenes (Latin-Amerika) tap til nesten 3 milliarder dollar etter initiativene i Colorado og Washington.”

    De internasjonale FN-konvensjonene for narkotika er et globalt rammeverk, det er ikke bare cannabis som blir diskutert, men cannabis er det største markedet. Det at Uruguay og (foreløbig) to delstater i USA har legalisert cannabis, og forsøker å løse sine egne problemer er ikke en global løsning. De internasjonale konvensjonene, det globale rammeverket, må endres. http://luhm.no/?p=4432#comment-3510

    https://www.facebook.com/anita.nyholt/posts/10152273186622461

  6. september 24, 2014

    Blindern, Universitetet i Oslo, 23. september 2014.
    Om de narkotikapolitiske reformene i Latin-Amerika.
    Professor Benedicte Bull, professor Willy Pedersen, seniorforsker Ole. J. Røgeberg (og forfatter Guillermo Garat, ikke på film).

    Spilleliste, «Uruguay’s cannabis legislation»: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_eXFXXOe91vA0h8VM3sp6MShHemJ-hzh

    Torsdag 25. september kl 17 på UiO, Gamle festsal, Karl Johans gate 47 blir det også holdt en konferanse med Guillermo Garat og Tverrfaglig arbeidsgruppe om narkotikaspørsmål, «Legalizing and regulating cannabis in Uruguay. Possession, use, production», arrangert av Asociación Uruguay-Noruega. http://www.norlarnet.uio.no/events/events/2014/legalizing-and.html

    Jeg skal ikke dit, men har filmet tidligere konferanser som har vært arrangert av den tverrfaglige arbeidsgruppen: http://anitanyholt.no/samfunn/tverrfaglig-arbeidsgruppe

  7. april 28, 2014

    Uruguay har 3,4 millioner innbyggere. Bruk av cannabis har vært tillatt siden 1974. I følge Vice er det 8% som innrømmer at de bruker cannabis.

    De første lovlige utsalgsstedene er planlagt åpnet i disse dager, men det er usikkert hvem som skal levere cannabis til utsalgsstedene.

    Det er allerede tillatt med hjemmedyrking, inntil seks planter.

    Det er bestemt at prisen på lovlig cannabis skal være lav ($1 pr gram) for å utkonkurrere det illegale markedet. Det ble først bestemt at man kunne kjøpe inntil en ounce (ca 28 gram) lovlig per uke, men det ryktes at det vil bli nedustert til 10 gram. Når prisen er så lav og man kjøpe såpass mye er det fare for at mye av det vil solgt videre illegalt. En annen løsning kunne vært å sette prisen opp, og ha bedre kvalitet enn hva det illegale markedet tilbyr.

    For å få kjøpt lovlig cannabis må kundene registrere seg, men det er usikkert hvor mange som vil gjøre det, og hvor mange som vil fortsette å kjøpe fra det illegale markedet. Mange sier at de ikke ønsker at myndighetene skal vite at de bruker cannabis, og de vil selv bestemme hvor mye de skal kunne kjøpe og bruke.

    Når Vice spør presidenten om dette svarer han at de ønsker registrering og mengdebegrensning for å kunne tilby hjelp til de som bruker for mye.

    På spørsmål om hvordan det føles å være det første landet i verden som legaliserer og regulerer hele cannabisproduksjonen svarer han: We call it a regulation of a market that already exitsts. Marijuana consumption already exists (approximately 200 000). The world has been fighting drug trafficking, and it’s only getting worse. It’s not going to disappear, but we are going to make it as hard as we can for them.»

    Det blir interessant å følge med på hva som skjer videre i Uruguay, om en registreringsordning klarer å utkonkurrere det illegale markedet.

    Dokumentar fra Vice:
    http://www.vice.com/weediquette-show/the-cannabis-republic-of-uruguay-full-length

    http://www.facebook.com/luhm.no/posts/667383233334422

  8. desember 11, 2013

    Dette er historisk! Uruguay er første land i verden som legaliserer produksjon, distribusjon og salg av cannabis til voksne.

    Drug Policy Alliance: “Uruguay just made history, becoming the first country in the world to legalize the production, distribution and sale of marijuana for adults. DPA’s Hannah Hetzer breaks it all down in this piece for CNN”: http://cnn.it/18l1Rqv

    “There will be a 120-day period to give the government time to adopt regulations to implement the law.” http://edition.cnn.com/2013/12/09/world/americas/uruguay-marijuana-bill

    http://www.facebook.com/luhm.no/posts/593575644048515

  9. juli 25, 2013

    Uruguay ser ut til å bli det første landet i verden til å lovliggjøre og regulere cannabis, og de ​​får støtte fra den tidligere presidenten i Brasil Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Supporting Uruguay in the Legal Regulation of Marijuana.

    «Two years ago, in my capacity as chairman of the Global Commission on Drug Policy, I made a public call for the decriminalization of drug use and for experimentation with models of legal regulation. I and my colleagues did so recognizing that drug prohibition had failed on many levels. For too long, it has represented a waste of precious government resources, which has had few benefits for public safety and health.

    We encouraged experimentation with legal regulation because we believe it will undermine the power of organized crime and safeguard health and security. For this reason, I believe the current proposal to regulate marijuana in Uruguay is worthy of serious consideration.»

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/fernando-henrique-cardoso/supporting-uruguay-in-the_b_3642022.html?

  10. april 11, 2013

    The forty-third regular session of the OAS General Assembly will be held in Antigua, Guatemala, from June 4 to 6, 2013.

    Foreign Minister of Guatemala Proposes «Alternative Strategies for Combating Drugs» as the Central Theme of the 43rd OAS General Assembly.

    Se også:
    http://anitanyholt.no/samfunn/latin-amerika-krever-endring-av-fn-avtalen-for-a-regulere-markedet-og-stoppe-krigen-mot-narkotika

    «President Otto Perez proposed last year in several forums, and prominently in Cartagena, the need to open a serious dialogue, deep and political and technically well-founded on this issue», said the Guatemalan Foreign Minister, who specifically referred to the work assigned to the OAS during the Summit of the Americas, saying that «the OAS Secretary General has fulfilled very clearly and with great responsibility the mandate given to him.» Foreign Minister Carrera suggested that the report currently being prepared by the OAS should serve as the basis for the discussions that will take place during the Assembly, which is expected to be «a political forum to discuss these alternatives and reflect on what we can do and what we can recommend to Member States to improve the strategies in combating illicit drugs.»

    The Guatemalan Foreign Minister explained that his proposal includes five sub-themes «that allow us to define more clearly the conversation and to identify niches to advance in the fight against drugs.» Among these, he mentioned the strengthening of health systems for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse, including the assessment of what is being done to address this scourge. Second, he referred to the reduction of violence and crime related to narcotics, with the state’s role as the promoter of peace, because “if we have to declare a war it is against violence, and we have to win this war with safer societies,» he said.

    The third sub-theme is how to reduce arms trafficking and money laundering, «which nourish and strengthen drug trafficking and eliminate the state’s ability to control violence.» In fourth place, he said Guatemala wants to analyze the option of legalizing some crops that are important for certain populations, and promote local economic development based on their development. Finally, he mentioned studying the possibility of decriminalizing drug use, which in his view, would help to reduce the prison population. Other issues raised included combating the links between corruption and drug trafficking and the respect for human rights.

    Foreign Minister Carrera added that «the agenda of alternative strategies is not limited, it is a broad and deep agenda,» while also reiterating the importance of considering the principles of humanity and humility when addressing the issue and added that «the solution also involves strengthening the state’s public capacities, thus achieving better solutions.»

    The Foreign Minister concluded his address by inviting all the Foreign Ministers of the hemisphere to attend the meeting. «We hope that the political dialogue in Antigua will be historic, one that marks a before and after in the issue of the war on drugs in the 21st century,» he said.

    http://www.oas.org/en/media_center/press_release.asp?sCodigo=E-062/13

  11. desember 28, 2012

    De siste meldingene fra Uruguay går ut på at president Mujica har utsatt behandlinga av forslaget om legal cannbisomsetning på grunn av politisk motstand.

    http://www.drugpolicy.org/resource/mujica-halts-his-own-plan-legalize-marijuana-uruguay

    • desember 28, 2012

      Jeg ser av artikkelen du lenker til at en meningsmåling viser at 64% av urugayanerne ikke ønsker at prosjektet skal gjennomføres, eller det kan være at de ikke ønsker den (strenge) reguleringsmodellen som er foreslått. President Mujica ønsker en offentlig debatt, for å øke bevisstheten rundt problematikken og sier «Don’t vote a law for me because you have a majority in Parliament. The majority has to be in the street.» Hvis systemet blir for strengt så vil uansett det svarte markedet opprettholdes. Det ser dermed ut til at Uruguay avventer den internasjonale debatten som nå kommer, etter påtrykk fra Latin-Amerika til FN.

      http://anitanyholt.no/samfunn/latin-amerika-krever-endring-av-fn-avtalen-for-a-regulere-markedet-og-stoppe-krigen-mot-narkotika

      • januar 24, 2013

        Kan hende noen ikke ønsker den strenge reguleringsmodellen som er foreslått, men blandt det brede lag med folk i søramerika er det stor motstand mot legalisering av narkotika. Det blir veldig sett ned på. Det er i denne omgang først og fremst blant de intelektuelle elitene og makthaverne at ideen er populær. Det er nok den viktigste årsaken.

        • april 11, 2013

          Uruguay skal ha tre måneders offentlig debatt

          On November 15, 2012, the government of Uruguay submitted to its parliament a proposal for the legalization of the sale of marijuana under state control (possession and use of marijuana is already legal in Uruguay). The bill would create a National Cannabis Institute to regulate commercial marijuana production and distribution. The bill would allow the cultivation of up to six plants for personal use and the possession of up to 17 ounces.

          With public opposition to marijuana legalization still at around 64%, President Mujica decided to slow down the project last December. The government is now launching a three-month public debate that will feature round tables, seminars, and conferences across the country.

          This is unprecedented in the history of the drug policy reform movement. No government has ever taken such an active role in the drug policy debate.

          http://www.world-war-d.com/2013/04/10/uruguay-could-become-the-first-country-in-the-world-to-legalize-marijuana-they-need-your-support

Legg igjen et svar

Merk: Du kan bruke vanlig XHTML i kommentarene dine. Epostadressen din vil aldri bli publisert.

Abbonér på denne kommentarstrømmen via RSS